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C Programming Code Examples

C > Arrays and Matrices Code Examples

C Program to Calculate the Sum of the Elements of each Row & Column

/* C Program to Calculate the Sum of the Elements of each Row & Column This C program reads a matrix A (MxN) & finds the following using functions a) Sum of the elements of each row b) Sum of the elements of each column c) Find the sum of all the elements of the matrix 1. Take the MxN matrix as input. 2. Define two functions separately for row sum and column sum. 3. Use for loops to calculate the sum of the elements of each row & column in a given matrix. 4. Either add all the calculated row sum or column sum to get the sum of all elements of the matrix. */ #include <stdio.h> int Addrow(int array1[25][25], int k, int c); int Addcol(int array1[25][25], int k, int r); void main() { int arr[25][25]; int x, j, row, col, rowsum, colsum, sumall=0; printf("Enter the order of the matrix \n"); scanf("%d %d", &row, &col); printf("Enter the elements of the matrix \n"); for (x = 0; x < row; x++) { for (j = 0; j < col; j++) { scanf("%d", &arr[x][j]); } } printf("Input matrix is \n"); for (x = 0; x < row; x++) { for (j = 0; j < col; j++) { printf("%3d", arr[x][j]); } printf("\n"); } /* computing row sum */ for (x = 0; x < row; x++) { rowsum = Addrow(arr, x, col); printf("Sum of row %d = %d\n", x + 1, rowsum); } /* computing col sum */ for (j = 0; j < col; j++) { colsum = Addcol(arr, j, row); printf("Sum of column %d = %d\n", j + 1, colsum); } /* computation of all elements */ for (j = 0; j < row; j++) { sumall = sumall + Addrow(arr, j, col); } printf("Sum of all elements of matrix = %d\n", sumall); } /* Function to add each row */ int Addrow(int array1[25][25], int k, int c) { int rsum = 0, x; for (x = 0; x < c; x++) { rsum = rsum + array1[k][x]; } return(rsum); } /* Function to add each column */ int Addcol(int array1[25][25], int k, int r) { int csum = 0, j; for (j = 0; j < r; j++) { csum = csum + array1[j][k]; } return(csum); }

Writes the C string pointed by format to the standard output (stdout). If format includes format specifiers (subsequences beginning with %), the additional arguments following format are formatted and inserted in the resulting string replacing their respective specifiers. printf format string refers to a control parameter used by a class of functions in the input/output libraries of C programming language. The string is written in a simple template language: characters are usually copied literally into the function's output, but format specifiers, which start with a % character, indicate the location and method to translate a piece of data (such as a number) to characters. "printf" is the name of one of the main C output functions, and stands for "print formatted". printf format strings are complementary to scanf format strings, which provide formatted input (parsing). In both cases these provide simple functionality and fixed format compared to more sophisticated and flexible template engines or parsers,

The for loop is used in the case where we need to execute some part of the code until the given condition is satisfied. The for loop is also called as a per-tested loop. It is better to use for loop if the number of iteration is known in advance. The for-loop statement is a very specialized while loop, which increases the readability of a program. It is frequently used to traverse the data structures like the array and linked list.

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program. Here are the two types of file that can be included using #include:

C supports nesting of loops in C. Nesting of loops is the feature in C that allows the looping of statements inside another loop. Any number of loops can be defined inside another loop, i.e., there is no restriction for defining any number of loops. The nesting level can be defined at n times. You can define any type of loop inside another loop; for example, you can define 'while' loop inside a 'for' loop.

An array is defined as the collection of similar type of data items stored at contiguous memory locations. Arrays are the derived data type in C programming language which can store the primitive type of data such as int, char, double, float, etc. It also has the capability to store the collection of derived data types, such as pointers, structure, etc. The array is the simplest data structure where each data element can be randomly accessed by using its index number.

An array is a collection of data items, all of the same type, accessed using a common name. A one-dimensional array is like a list; A two dimensional array is like a table; The C language places no limits on the number of dimensions in an array, though specific implementations may. Some texts refer to one-dimensional arrays as vectors, two-dimensional arrays as matrices, and use the general term arrays when the number of dimensions is unspecified or unimportant.

Read formatted data from stdin. Reads data from stdin and stores them according to the parameter format into the locations pointed by the additional arguments. The additional arguments should point to already allocated objects of the type specified by their corresponding format specifier within the format string. In C programming, scanf() is one of the commonly used function to take input from the user. The scanf() function reads formatted input from the standard input such as keyboards. The scanf() function enables the programmer to accept formatted inputs to the application or production code. Moreover, by using this function, the users can provide dynamic input values to the application.

In C, the "main" function is treated the same as every function, it has a return type (and in some cases accepts inputs via parameters). The only difference is that the main function is "called" by the operating system when the user runs the program. Thus the main function is always the first code executed when a program starts. main() function is a user defined, body of the function is defined by the programmer or we can say main() is programmer/user implemented function, whose prototype is predefined in the compiler. Hence we can say that main() in c programming is user defined as well as predefined because it's prototype is predefined. main() is a system (compiler) declared function whose defined by the user, which is invoked automatically by the operating system when program is being executed.

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Send to a buffered stream to filep1 and send to an unbuffered stream to filep2. Set buf to null to turn off buffering. The buffer must be BUFSIZ characters long. BUFSIZ is defined in