# C Programming Code Examples

## C > Arrays and Matrices Code Examples

### Find if a given Integer X appears more than N/2 times in a Sorted Array of N Integers

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/* Find if a given Integer X appears more than N/2 times in a Sorted Array of N Integers */ # include <stdio.h> # define bool int bool Morenooftimes(int array[], int n, int x) { int j; int final_index = n % 2 ? n / 2 : (n / 2 + 1); for (j = 0; j < final_index; j++) { /* check if x is presents more than n/2 times */ if (array[j] == x && array[j + n / 2] == x) return 1; } return 0; } int main() { int array[] = {10, 13, 13, 16, 18 ,15}; int n = sizeof(array) / sizeof(array[0]); int x = 15; if (Morenooftimes(array, n, x)) printf("The given no %d appears more than %d times in array[]", x, n/2); else printf("The given no %d does not appear more than %d times in array[]", x, n/2); getchar(); return 0; }

An expression containing logical operator returns either 0 or 1 depending upon whether expression results true or false. Logical operators are commonly used in decision making in C programming. These operators are used to perform logical operations and used with conditional statements like C if-else statements.

The sizeof() operator is commonly used in C. It determines the size of the expression or the data type specified in the number of char-sized storage units. The sizeof() operator contains a single operand which can be either an expression or a data typecast where the cast is data type enclosed within parenthesis. The data type cannot only be primitive data types such as integer or floating data types, but it can also be pointer data types and compound data types such as unions and structs.

The for loop is used in the case where we need to execute some part of the code until the given condition is satisfied. The for loop is also called as a per-tested loop. It is better to use for loop if the number of iteration is known in advance. The for-loop statement is a very specialized while loop, which increases the readability of a program. It is frequently used to traverse the data structures like the array and linked list.

The if-else statement is used to perform two operations for a single condition. The if-else statement is an extension to the if statement using which, we can perform two different operations, i.e., one is for the correctness of that condition, and the other is for the incorrectness of the condition. Here, we must notice that if and else block cannot be executed simiulteneously. Using if-else statement is always preferable since it always invokes an otherwise case with every if condition.

Get character from stdin. Returns the next character from the standard input (stdin). It is equivalent to calling getc with stdin as argument. A getchar() function is a non-standard function whose meaning is already defined in the stdin.h header file to accept a single input from the user. In other words, it is the C library function that gets a single character (unsigned char) from the stdin. However, the getchar() function is similar to the getc() function, but there is a small difference between the getchar() and getc() function of the C programming language.

Writes the C string pointed by format to the standard output (stdout). If format includes format specifiers (subsequences beginning with %), the additional arguments following format are formatted and inserted in the resulting string replacing their respective specifiers. printf format string refers to a control parameter used by a class of functions in the input/output libraries of C programming language. The string is written in a simple template language: characters are usually copied literally into the function's output, but format specifiers, which start with a % character, indicate the location and method to translate a piece of data (such as a number) to characters. "printf" is the name of one of the main C output functions, and stands for "print formatted". printf format strings are complementary to scanf format strings, which provide formatted input (parsing). In both cases these provide simple functionality and fixed format compared to more sophisticated and flexible template engines or parsers,

An array is defined as the collection of similar type of data items stored at contiguous memory locations. Arrays are the derived data type in C programming language which can store the primitive type of data such as int, char, double, float, etc. It also has the capability to store the collection of derived data types, such as pointers, structure, etc. The array is the simplest data structure where each data element can be randomly accessed by using its index number.

An array is a collection of data items, all of the same type, accessed using a common name. A one-dimensional array is like a list; A two dimensional array is like a table; The C language places no limits on the number of dimensions in an array, though specific implementations may. Some texts refer to one-dimensional arrays as vectors, two-dimensional arrays as matrices, and use the general term arrays when the number of dimensions is unspecified or unimportant.

In C, the "main" function is treated the same as every function, it has a return type (and in some cases accepts inputs via parameters). The only difference is that the main function is "called" by the operating system when the user runs the program. Thus the main function is always the first code executed when a program starts. main() function is a user defined, body of the function is defined by the programmer or we can say main() is programmer/user implemented function, whose prototype is predefined in the compiler. Hence we can say that main() in c programming is user defined as well as predefined because it's prototype is predefined. main() is a system (compiler) declared function whose defined by the user, which is invoked automatically by the operating system when program is being executed.

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Write a C program to find minimum occurring character in a string. Initialize frequency of all characters to 0 and then "Finds Frequency" of each characters. "Finds minimum frequency".