 # C Programming Code Examples

## C > Arrays and Matrices Code Examples

### Program to Accept a Matrix of Order MxN & Interchange the Diagonals

/* Program to Accept a Matrix of Order MxN & Interchange the Diagonals */ /* This C Program accepts matrix of order MxN & interchange the diagonals. This program first accepts the matrix. Then exchange diagonals of the matrix. * C program to accept a matrix of order M x N and store its elements * and interchange the main diagonal elements of the matrix * with that of the secondary diagonal elements */ #include <stdio.h> void main () { static int array; int y, x, m, n, a; printf("Enter the order of the matix \n"); scanf("%d %d", &m, &n); if (m == n) { printf("Enter the co-efficients of the matrix\n"); for (y = 0; y < m; ++y) { for (x = 0; x < n; ++x) { scanf("%dx%d", &array[y][x]); } } printf("The given matrix is \n"); for (y = 0; y < m; ++y) { for (x = 0; x < n; ++x) { printf(" %d", array[y][x]); } printf("\n"); } for (y = 0; y < m; ++y) { a = array[y][y]; array[y][y] = array[y][m - y - 1]; array[y][m - y - 1] = a; } printf("The matrix after changing the \n"); printf("main diagonal & secondary diagonal\n"); for (y = 0; y < m; ++y) { for (x = 0; x < n; ++x) { printf(" %d", array[y][x]); } printf("\n"); } } else printf("The given order is not square matrix\n"); }

Read formatted data from stdin. Reads data from stdin and stores them according to the parameter format into the locations pointed by the additional arguments. The additional arguments should point to already allocated objects of the type specified by their corresponding format specifier within the format string. In C programming, scanf() is one of the commonly used function to take input from the user. The scanf() function reads formatted input from the standard input such as keyboards. The scanf() function enables the programmer to accept formatted inputs to the application or production code. Moreover, by using this function, the users can provide dynamic input values to the application.

An array is a collection of data items, all of the same type, accessed using a common name. A one-dimensional array is like a list; A two dimensional array is like a table; The C language places no limits on the number of dimensions in an array, though specific implementations may. Some texts refer to one-dimensional arrays as vectors, two-dimensional arrays as matrices, and use the general term arrays when the number of dimensions is unspecified or unimportant.

Writes the C string pointed by format to the standard output (stdout). If format includes format specifiers (subsequences beginning with %), the additional arguments following format are formatted and inserted in the resulting string replacing their respective specifiers. printf format string refers to a control parameter used by a class of functions in the input/output libraries of C programming language. The string is written in a simple template language: characters are usually copied literally into the function's output, but format specifiers, which start with a % character, indicate the location and method to translate a piece of data (such as a number) to characters. "printf" is the name of one of the main C output functions, and stands for "print formatted". printf format strings are complementary to scanf format strings, which provide formatted input (parsing). In both cases these provide simple functionality and fixed format compared to more sophisticated and flexible template engines or parsers,

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program. Here are the two types of file that can be included using #include:

The if-else statement is used to perform two operations for a single condition. The if-else statement is an extension to the if statement using which, we can perform two different operations, i.e., one is for the correctness of that condition, and the other is for the incorrectness of the condition. Here, we must notice that if and else block cannot be executed simiulteneously. Using if-else statement is always preferable since it always invokes an otherwise case with every if condition.

C supports nesting of loops in C. Nesting of loops is the feature in C that allows the looping of statements inside another loop. Any number of loops can be defined inside another loop, i.e., there is no restriction for defining any number of loops. The nesting level can be defined at n times. You can define any type of loop inside another loop; for example, you can define 'while' loop inside a 'for' loop.

In C, the "main" function is treated the same as every function, it has a return type (and in some cases accepts inputs via parameters). The only difference is that the main function is "called" by the operating system when the user runs the program. Thus the main function is always the first code executed when a program starts. main() function is a user defined, body of the function is defined by the programmer or we can say main() is programmer/user implemented function, whose prototype is predefined in the compiler. Hence we can say that main() in c programming is user defined as well as predefined because it's prototype is predefined. main() is a system (compiler) declared function whose defined by the user, which is invoked automatically by the operating system when program is being executed.

The for loop is used in the case where we need to execute some part of the code until the given condition is satisfied. The for loop is also called as a per-tested loop. It is better to use for loop if the number of iteration is known in advance. The for-loop statement is a very specialized while loop, which increases the readability of a program. It is frequently used to traverse the data structures like the array and linked list.

An array is defined as the collection of similar type of data items stored at contiguous memory locations. Arrays are the derived data type in C programming language which can store the primitive type of data such as int, char, double, float, etc. It also has the capability to store the collection of derived data types, such as pointers, structure, etc. The array is the simplest data structure where each data element can be randomly accessed by using its index number.

Program code count number of words, digits, vowels using pointers. Program code Finding number of words, blank spaces, digits, special symbols, vowels using pointers. Counting the

C Program uses recursive function and solves the "Tower of Hanoi". The tower of hanoi is a mathematical puzzle. It consists of threerods, and a number of disks of different sizes which

C Language code how to display a table in C programming language is more or less similar to that of counting. We use only one iteration and increment it with value of which table is

The following 'C Language Program' to using recursion, finds whether the entered number is a prime number or not. A 'prime number' is integer that has no integral factor but itself &

Create a new node. First, we handle the case where 'data' should be the first element. Apperently this !IS! the first element. Now data should [be|becomes] the first element.