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C Programming Code Examples

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Const function in all c programs: main() function

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/* Const function in all c programs: main() function */ #include <stdio.h> int main() { puts("my office"); return(0); }
main() Function in C
In C, the "main" function is treated the same as every function, it has a return type (and in some cases accepts inputs via parameters). The only difference is that the main function is "called" by the operating system when the user runs the program. Thus the main function is always the first code executed when a program starts. main() function is a user defined, body of the function is defined by the programmer or we can say main() is programmer/user implemented function, whose prototype is predefined in the compiler. Hence we can say that main() in c programming is user defined as well as predefined because it's prototype is predefined. main() is a system (compiler) declared function whose defined by the user, which is invoked automatically by the operating system when program is being executed. Its first function or entry point of the program from where program start executed, program's execution starts from the main. So main is an important function in c , c++ programming language.
Syntax for main() Function in C
void main() { ......... // codes start from here ......... }
void
is a keyword in C language, void means nothing, whenever we use void as a function return type then that function nothing return. here main() function no return any value. In place of void we can also use int return type of main() function, at that time main() return integer type value.
main
is a name of function which is predefined function in C library. • An operating system always calls the main() function when a programmers or users execute their programming code. • It is responsible for starting and ends of the program. • It is a universally accepted keyword in programming language and cannot change its meaning and name. • A main() function is a user-defined function in C that means we can pass parameters to the main() function according to the requirement of a program. • A main() function is used to invoke the programming code at the run time, not at the compile time of a program. • A main() function is followed by opening and closing parenthesis brackets.
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/* basic c program by main() function example */ #include <stdio.h> #include <conio.h> main() { printf (" It is a main() function "); int fun2(); // jump to void fun1() function printf ("\n Finally exit from the main() function. "); } void fun1() { printf (" It is a second function. "); printf (" Exit from the void fun1() function. "); } int fun2() { void fun1(); // jump to the int fun1() function printf (" It is a third function. "); printf (" Exit from the int fun2() function. "); return 0; }
#include Directive in C
#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program. Here are the two types of file that can be included using #include: • Header File or Standard files: This is a file which contains C/C++ function declarations and macro definitions to be shared between several source files. Functions like the printf(), scanf(), cout, cin and various other input-output or other standard functions are contained within different header files. So to utilise those functions, the users need to import a few header files which define the required functions. • User-defined files: These files resembles the header files, except for the fact that they are written and defined by the user itself. This saves the user from writing a particular function multiple times. Once a user-defined file is written, it can be imported anywhere in the program using the #include preprocessor.
Syntax for #include Directive in C
#include "user-defined_file"
Including using " ": When using the double quotes(" "), the preprocessor access the current directory in which the source "header_file" is located. This type is mainly used to access any header files of the user's program or user-defined files.
#include <header_file>
Including using <>: While importing file using angular brackets(<>), the the preprocessor uses a predetermined directory path to access the file. It is mainly used to access system header files located in the standard system directories.
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/* #include directive tells the preprocessor to insert the contents of another file into the source code at the point where the #include directive is found. */ // C program to illustrate file inclusion // <> used to import system header file #include <stdio.h> // " " used to import user-defined file #include "process.h" // main function int main() { // add function defined in process.h add(10, 20); // mult function defined in process.h multiply(10, 20); // printf defined in stdio.h printf("Process completed"); return 0; }
Comments in C Language
In the C Programming Language, you can place comments in your source code that are not executed as part of the program. Comments provide clarity to the C source code allowing others to better understand what the code was intended to accomplish and greatly helping in debugging the code. Comments are especially important in large projects containing hundreds or thousands of lines of source code or in projects in which many contributors are working on the source code. A comment starts with a slash asterisk /* and ends with a asterisk slash */ and can be anywhere in your program. Comments can span several lines within your C program. Comments are typically added directly above the related C code. /* comment here */
Syntax for Single Line Comments in C
// single line comment
Syntax for Multi Line Comments in C
/*Comment starts continues continues .. . Comment ends*/
Adding source code comments to your C source code is a highly recommended practice. In general, it is always better to over comment C source code than to not add enough. • In computer programming, a comment is a programmer-readable explanation or annotation in the source code of a computer program • Comments are statements that are not executed by the compiler and interpreter.
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/* place comments in your source code that are not executed as part of the program by multi line comment example */ #include <stdio.h> int main() { /*int value=100;*/ int x=10; printf("Value of x= %d\n",/*value*/x); // single line comment example int x=13; printf("Value of x= %d\n",/*value*/x); /* multi line comment */ return 0; }
puts() Function in C
Write string to stdout. Writes the C string pointed by str to the standard output (stdout) and appends a newline character ('\n'). The function begins copying from the address specified (str) until it reaches the terminating null character ('\0'). This terminating null-character is not copied to the stream. Notice that puts not only differs from fputs in that it uses stdout as destination, but it also appends a newline character at the end automatically (which fputs does not). The puts() function is very much similar to printf() function. The puts() function is used to print the string on the console which is previously read by using gets() or scanf() function. The puts() function returns an integer value representing the number of characters being printed on the console. Since, it prints an additional newline character with the string, which moves the cursor to the new line on the console, the integer value returned by puts() will always be equal to the number of characters present in the string plus 1.
Syntax for puts() Function in C
#include <stdio.h> int puts(const char *str)
str
C string to be printed. On success, a non-negative value is returned. On error, the function returns EOF and sets the error indicator (ferror).
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/* write string to stdout by puts() function example */ #include <stdio.h> #include <string.h> int main() { char name[50]; printf("Enter your name "); gets(name); int age[50]; printf("Enter your age "); gets(age); char address[50]; printf("Enter your address "); gets(address); int pincode[50]; printf("Enter your pincode "); gets(pincode); printf("Entered Name is: "); puts(name); printf("Entered age is: "); puts(age); printf("Entered address is: "); puts(address); printf("Entered pincode is: "); puts(pincode); getch(); return 0; }
Return Statement in C
The return statement terminates the execution of a function and returns control to the calling function. Execution resumes in the calling function at the point immediately following the call. A return statement can also return a value to the calling function. A return statement causes your function to exit and hand back a value to its caller. The point of functions, in general, is to take in inputs and return something. The return statement is used when a function is ready to return a value to its caller.
Syntax for Return Statement in C
return[expression];
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/* end the processing of the current function and returns control to the caller of the function by return statement */ /* C program to find maximum between two numbers using function */ #include <stdio.h> /* Function declaration */ int max(int num1, int num2); int main() { int num1, num2, maximum; printf("Enter two numbers: "); scanf("%d%d", &num1, &num2); /* * Call max function with arguments num1 and num2 * Store the maximum returned to variable maximum */ maximum = max(num1, num2); printf("Maximum = %d", maximum); return 0; } /* Function definition */ int max(int num1, int num2) { int maximum; // Find maximum between two numbers if(num1 > num2) maximum = num1; else maximum = num2; // Return the maximum value to caller return maximum; }


This C Program sort the array elements using gnome sort. Gnome sort(stupid sort) is a sort algorithm which is similar to insertion sorting except that 'moving an element' to its proper
Recursive function in C to Check Palindrome number. Declare recursive function to check palindrome. First give a meaningful name to our function, say isPalindrome(). Along with