# C Programming Code Examples

## C > Bitwise Operators Code Examples

### Find the Position of String of 1-bits in a Number for a given Length

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/* Find the Position of String of 1-bits in a Number for a given Length */ #include <stdio.h> void main() { int n, len, pos = 0, j = 0, count = 0; printf("**Finding the position of 1-bits in a number for given length**\n"); printf("enter a number\n"); scanf("%d", &n); printf("enter the length\n"); scanf("%d", &len); while (j <= 32) { if ((n & 1) == 1) //checking whether there is a 1-bit in the current position { count++;//counting the consecutive 1's in the integer pos = j; if (count == len) //checking whether the length matches { break; } } if ((n & 1) == 0) { count = 0; } n = n>>1; j++; } printf("the position of 1 in the string : %d\n", pos); }
Bitwise Operators in C
The bitwise operators are the operators used to perform the operations on the data at the bit-level. When we perform the bitwise operations, then it is also known as bit-level programming. It consists of two digits, either 0 or 1. It is mainly used in numerical computations to make the calculations faster. We have different types of bitwise operators in the C programming language. The following is the list of the bitwise operators:
&
Bitwise AND operator is denoted by the single ampersand sign (&). Two integer operands are written on both sides of the (&) operator. If the corresponding bits of both the operands are 1, then the output of the bitwise AND operation is 1; otherwise, the output would be 0.
|
Bitwise OR operator is represented by a single vertical sign (|). Two integer operands are written on both sides of the (|) symbol. If the bit value of any of the operand is 1, then the output would be 1, otherwise 0.
^
Bitwise exclusive OR operator is denoted by (^) symbol. Two operands are written on both sides of the exclusive OR operator. If the corresponding bit of any of the operand is 1 then the output would be 1, otherwise 0.
~
Bitwise complement operator is also known as one's complement operator (unary operator). It is represented by the symbol tilde (~). It takes only one operand or variable and performs complement operation on an operand. When we apply the complement operation on any bits, then 0 becomes 1 and 1 becomes 0. Two types of bitwise shift operators exist in C programming. The bitwise shift operators will shift the bits either on the left-side or right-side. Therefore, we can say that the bitwise shift operator is divided into two categories:
<<
Left-shift operator - It is an operator that shifts the number of bits to the left-side. Left shift operator shifts all bits towards left by a certain number of specified bits. The bit positions that have been vacated by the left shift operator are filled with 0. The symbol of the left shift operator is <<.
>>
Right-shift operator - It is an operator that shifts the number of bits to the right side. Right shift operator shifts all bits towards right by certain number of specified bits. It is denoted by >>. X Y X&Y X|Y X^Y 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
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/* bitwise operators in C language */ #include <stdio.h> main() { unsigned int a = 60; /* 60 = 0011 1100 */ unsigned int b = 13; /* 13 = 0000 1101 */ int c = 0; c = a & b; /* 12 = 0000 1100 */ printf("Line 1 - Value of c is %d\n", c ); c = a | b; /* 61 = 0011 1101 */ printf("Line 2 - Value of c is %d\n", c ); c = a ^ b; /* 49 = 0011 0001 */ printf("Line 3 - Value of c is %d\n", c ); c = ~a; /*-61 = 1100 0011 */ printf("Line 4 - Value of c is %d\n", c ); c = a << 2; /* 240 = 1111 0000 */ printf("Line 5 - Value of c is %d\n", c ); c = a >> 2; /* 15 = 0000 1111 */ printf("Line 6 - Value of c is %d\n", c ); }
While Loop Statement in C
While loop is also known as a pre-tested loop. In general, a while loop allows a part of the code to be executed multiple times depending upon a given boolean condition. It can be viewed as a repeating if statement. The while loop is mostly used in the case where the number of iterations is not known in advance. The while loop evaluates the test expression inside the parentheses (). If test expression is true, statements inside the body of while loop are executed. Then, test expression is evaluated again. The process goes on until test expression is evaluated to false. If test expression is false, the loop terminates.
Syntax of While Loop Statement in C
while (testExpression) { // the body of the loop }
• The while loop evaluates the testExpression inside the parentheses (). • If testExpression is true, statements inside the body of while loop are executed. Then, testExpression is evaluated again. • The process goes on until testExpression is evaluated to false. • If testExpression is false, the loop terminates (ends).
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/* while loop statement in C language */ #include<stdio.h> int main() { int n, num, sum = 0, remainder; printf("Enter a number: "); scanf("%d", &n); num = n; // keep looping while n > 0 while( n > 0 ) { remainder = n % 10; // get the last digit of n sum += remainder; // add the remainder to the sum n /= 10; // remove the last digit from n } printf("Sum of digits of %d is %d", num, sum); // signal to operating system everything works fine return 0; }
If Else If Ladder in C/C++
The if...else statement executes two different codes depending upon whether the test expression is true or false. Sometimes, a choice has to be made from more than 2 possibilities. The if...else ladder allows you to check between multiple test expressions and execute different statements. In C/C++ if-else-if ladder helps user decide from among multiple options. The C/C++ if statements are executed from the top down. As soon as one of the conditions controlling the if is true, the statement associated with that if is executed, and the rest of the C else-if ladder is bypassed. If none of the conditions is true, then the final else statement will be executed.
Syntax of if...else Ladder in C
if (Condition1) { Statement1; } else if(Condition2) { Statement2; } . . . else if(ConditionN) { StatementN; } else { Default_Statement; }
In the above syntax of if-else-if, if the Condition1 is TRUE then the Statement1 will be executed and control goes to next statement in the program following if-else-if ladder. If Condition1 is FALSE then Condition2 will be checked, if Condition2 is TRUE then Statement2 will be executed and control goes to next statement in the program following if-else-if ladder. Similarly, if Condition2 is FALSE then next condition will be checked and the process continues. If all the conditions in the if-else-if ladder are evaluated to FALSE, then Default_Statement will be executed.
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/* write a C program which demonstrate use of if-else-if ladder statement */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a; printf("Enter a Number: "); scanf("%d",&a); if(a > 0) { printf("Given Number is Positive"); } else if(a == 0) { printf("Given Number is Zero"); } else if(a < 0) { printf("Given Number is Negative"); } getch(); }
main() Function in C
In C, the "main" function is treated the same as every function, it has a return type (and in some cases accepts inputs via parameters). The only difference is that the main function is "called" by the operating system when the user runs the program. Thus the main function is always the first code executed when a program starts. main() function is a user defined, body of the function is defined by the programmer or we can say main() is programmer/user implemented function, whose prototype is predefined in the compiler. Hence we can say that main() in c programming is user defined as well as predefined because it's prototype is predefined. main() is a system (compiler) declared function whose defined by the user, which is invoked automatically by the operating system when program is being executed. Its first function or entry point of the program from where program start executed, program's execution starts from the main. So main is an important function in c , c++ programming language.
Syntax for main() Function in C
void main() { ......... // codes start from here ......... }
void
is a keyword in C language, void means nothing, whenever we use void as a function return type then that function nothing return. here main() function no return any value. In place of void we can also use int return type of main() function, at that time main() return integer type value.
main
is a name of function which is predefined function in C library. • An operating system always calls the main() function when a programmers or users execute their programming code. • It is responsible for starting and ends of the program. • It is a universally accepted keyword in programming language and cannot change its meaning and name. • A main() function is a user-defined function in C that means we can pass parameters to the main() function according to the requirement of a program. • A main() function is used to invoke the programming code at the run time, not at the compile time of a program. • A main() function is followed by opening and closing parenthesis brackets.
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/* basic c program by main() function example */ #include <stdio.h> #include <conio.h> main() { printf (" It is a main() function "); int fun2(); // jump to void fun1() function printf ("\n Finally exit from the main() function. "); } void fun1() { printf (" It is a second function. "); printf (" Exit from the void fun1() function. "); } int fun2() { void fun1(); // jump to the int fun1() function printf (" It is a third function. "); printf (" Exit from the int fun2() function. "); return 0; }
Break Statement in C
The break is a keyword in C which is used to bring the program control out of the loop. The break statement is used inside loops or switch statement. The break statement breaks the loop one by one, i.e., in the case of nested loops, it breaks the inner loop first and then proceeds to outer loops.
Syntax for Break Statement in C
//loop statement... break;
When a break statement is encountered inside a loop, the loop is immediately terminated and the program control resumes at the next statement following the loop. It can be used to terminate a case in the switch statement (covered in the next chapter). If you are using nested loops, the break statement will stop the execution of the innermost loop and start executing the next line of code after the block.
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/* bring the program control out of the loop by break keyword */ // Program to calculate the sum of numbers (10 numbers max) // If the user enters a negative number, the loop terminates #include <stdio.h> int main() { int i; double number, sum = 0.0; for (i = 1; i <= 10; ++i) { printf("Enter n%d: ", i); scanf("%lf", &number); // if the user enters a negative number, break the loop if (number < 0.0) { break; } sum += number; // sum = sum + number; } printf("Sum = %.2lf", sum); return 0; }
scanf() Function in C
Read formatted data from stdin. Reads data from stdin and stores them according to the parameter format into the locations pointed by the additional arguments. The additional arguments should point to already allocated objects of the type specified by their corresponding format specifier within the format string. In C programming, scanf() is one of the commonly used function to take input from the user. The scanf() function reads formatted input from the standard input such as keyboards. The scanf() function enables the programmer to accept formatted inputs to the application or production code. Moreover, by using this function, the users can provide dynamic input values to the application.
Syntax for scanf() Function in C
#include <stdio.h> int scanf ( const char * format, ... );
format
C string that contains a sequence of characters that control how characters extracted from the stream are treated: • Whitespace character: the function will read and ignore any whitespace characters encountered before the next non-whitespace character (whitespace characters include spaces, newline and tab characters -- see isspace). A single whitespace in the format string validates any quantity of whitespace characters extracted from the stream (including none). • Non-whitespace character, except format specifier (%): Any character that is not either a whitespace character (blank, newline or tab) or part of a format specifier (which begin with a % character) causes the function to read the next character from the stream, compare it to this non-whitespace character and if it matches, it is discarded and the function continues with the next character of format. If the character does not match, the function fails, returning and leaving subsequent characters of the stream unread. • Format specifiers: A sequence formed by an initial percentage sign (%) indicates a format specifier, which is used to specify the type and format of the data to be retrieved from the stream and stored into the locations pointed by the additional arguments. A format specifier for scanf follows this prototype: %[*][width][length]specifier
specifier
Where the specifier character at the end is the most significant component, since it defines which characters are extracted, their interpretation and the type of its corresponding argument:
i – integer
Any number of digits, optionally preceded by a sign (+ or -). Decimal digits assumed by default (0-9), but a 0 prefix introduces octal digits (0-7), and 0x hexadecimal digits (0-f). Signed argument.
d or u – decimal integer
Any number of decimal digits (0-9), optionally preceded by a sign (+ or -). d is for a signed argument, and u for an unsigned.
o – octal integer
Any number of octal digits (0-7), optionally preceded by a sign (+ or -). Unsigned argument.
Any number of hexadecimal digits (0-9, a-f, A-F), optionally preceded by 0x or 0X, and all optionally preceded by a sign (+ or -). Unsigned argument.
f, e, g – floating point number
A series of decimal digits, optionally containing a decimal point, optionally preceeded by a sign (+ or -) and optionally followed by the e or E character and a decimal integer (or some of the other sequences supported by strtod). Implementations complying with C99 also support hexadecimal floating-point format when preceded by 0x or 0X.
c – character
The next character. If a width other than 1 is specified, the function reads exactly width characters and stores them in the successive locations of the array passed as argument. No null character is appended at the end.
s – string of characters
Any number of non-whitespace characters, stopping at the first whitespace character found. A terminating null character is automatically added at the end of the stored sequence.
A sequence of characters representing a pointer. The particular format used depends on the system and library implementation, but it is the same as the one used to format %p in fprintf.
[characters] – scanset
Any number of the characters specified between the brackets. A dash (-) that is not the first character may produce non-portable behavior in some library implementations.
[^characters] – negated scanset
Any number of characters none of them specified as characters between the brackets.
n – count
No input is consumed. The number of characters read so far from stdin is stored in the pointed location.
%
A % followed by another % matches a single %. Except for n, at least one character shall be consumed by any specifier. Otherwise the match fails, and the scan ends there.
sub-specifier
The format specifier can also contain sub-specifiers: asterisk (*), width and length (in that order), which are optional and follow these specifications:
*
An optional starting asterisk indicates that the data is to be read from the stream but ignored (i.e. it is not stored in the location pointed by an argument).
width
Specifies the maximum number of characters to be read in the current reading operation (optional).
length
One of hh, h, l, ll, j, z, t, L (optional). This alters the expected type of the storage pointed by the corresponding argument (see below).
Depending on the format string, the function may expect a sequence of additional arguments, each containing a pointer to allocated storage where the interpretation of the extracted characters is stored with the appropriate type. There should be at least as many of these arguments as the number of values stored by the format specifiers. Additional arguments are ignored by the function. These arguments are expected to be pointers: to store the result of a scanf operation on a regular variable, its name should be preceded by the reference operator (&) (see example). On success, the function returns the number of items of the argument list successfully filled. This count can match the expected number of items or be less (even zero) due to a matching failure, a reading error, or the reach of the end-of-file. If a reading error happens or the end-of-file is reached while reading, the proper indicator is set (feof or ferror). And, if either happens before any data could be successfully read, EOF is returned. If an encoding error happens interpreting wide characters, the function sets errno to EILSEQ.
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/* read formatted data from stdin by scanf() function example */ #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <string.h> int main(int argc, const char * argv[]) { /* Define temporary variables */ char name[10]; int age; int result; /* Ask the user to enter their first name and age */ printf("Please enter your first name and your age.\n"); /* Read a name and age from the user */ result = scanf("%s %d",name, &age); /* We were not able to parse the two required values */ if (result < 2) { /* Display an error and exit */ printf("Either name or age was not entered\n\n"); exit(0); } /* Display the values the user entered */ printf("Name: %s\n", name); printf("Age: %d\n", age); return 0; }
printf() Function in C
Writes the C string pointed by format to the standard output (stdout). If format includes format specifiers (subsequences beginning with %), the additional arguments following format are formatted and inserted in the resulting string replacing their respective specifiers. printf format string refers to a control parameter used by a class of functions in the input/output libraries of C programming language. The string is written in a simple template language: characters are usually copied literally into the function's output, but format specifiers, which start with a % character, indicate the location and method to translate a piece of data (such as a number) to characters. "printf" is the name of one of the main C output functions, and stands for "print formatted". printf format strings are complementary to scanf format strings, which provide formatted input (parsing). In both cases these provide simple functionality and fixed format compared to more sophisticated and flexible template engines or parsers, but are sufficient for many purposes.
Syntax for printf() function in C
#include <stdio.h> int printf ( const char * format, ... );
format
C string that contains the text to be written to stdout. It can optionally contain embedded format specifiers that are replaced by the values specified in subsequent additional arguments and formatted as requested. A format specifier follows this prototype: [see compatibility note below] %[flags][width][.precision][length]specifier Where the specifier character at the end is the most significant component, since it defines the type and the interpretation of its corresponding argument:
specifier
a conversion format specifier.
d or i
Signed decimal integer
u
Unsigned decimal integer
o
Unsigned octal
x
X
f
Decimal floating point, lowercase
F
Decimal floating point, uppercase
e
Scientific notation (mantissa/exponent), lowercase
E
Scientific notation (mantissa/exponent), uppercase
g
Use the shortest representation: %e or %f
G
Use the shortest representation: %E or %F
a
A
c
Character
s
String of characters
p
n
Nothing printed. The corresponding argument must be a pointer to a signed int. The number of characters written so far is stored in the pointed location.
%
A % followed by another % character will write a single % to the stream. The format specifier can also contain sub-specifiers: flags, width, .precision and modifiers (in that order), which are optional and follow these specifications:
flags
one or more flags that modifies the conversion behavior (optional)
-
Left-justify within the given field width; Right justification is the default (see width sub-specifier).
+
Forces to preceed the result with a plus or minus sign (+ or -) even for positive numbers. By default, only negative numbers are preceded with a - sign.
(space)
If no sign is going to be written, a blank space is inserted before the value.
#
Used with o, x or X specifiers the value is preceeded with 0, 0x or 0X respectively for values different than zero. Used with a, A, e, E, f, F, g or G it forces the written output to contain a decimal point even if no more digits follow. By default, if no digits follow, no decimal point is written.
0
width
an optional * or integer value used to specify minimum width field.
(number)
Minimum number of characters to be printed. If the value to be printed is shorter than this number, the result is padded with blank spaces. The value is not truncated even if the result is larger.
*
The width is not specified in the format string, but as an additional integer value argument preceding the argument that has to be formatted.
.precision
an optional field consisting of a . followed by * or integer or nothing to specify the precision.
.number
For integer specifiers (d, i, o, u, x, X): precision specifies the minimum number of digits to be written. If the value to be written is shorter than this number, the result is padded with leading zeros. The value is not truncated even if the result is longer. A precision of 0 means that no character is written for the value 0. For a, A, e, E, f and F specifiers: this is the number of digits to be printed after the decimal point (by default, this is 6). For g and G specifiers: This is the maximum number of significant digits to be printed. For s: this is the maximum number of characters to be printed. By default all characters are printed until the ending null character is encountered. If the period is specified without an explicit value for precision, 0 is assumed.
.*
The precision is not specified in the format string, but as an additional integer value argument preceding the argument that has to be formatted.
length
an optional length modifier that specifies the size of the argument.
Depending on the format string, the function may expect a sequence of additional arguments, each containing a value to be used to replace a format specifier in the format string (or a pointer to a storage location, for n). There should be at least as many of these arguments as the number of values specified in the format specifiers. Additional arguments are ignored by the function. If a writing error occurs, the error indicator (ferror) is set and a negative number is returned. If a multibyte character encoding error occurs while writing wide characters, errno is set to EILSEQ and a negative number is returned.
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/* print formatted data to stdout by printf() function example */ #include <stdio.h> int main() { char ch; char str[100]; int a; float b; printf("Enter any character \n"); scanf("%c", &ch); printf("Entered character is %c \n", ch); printf("Enter any string ( upto 100 character ) \n"); scanf("%s", &str); printf("Entered string is %s \n", str); printf("Enter integer and then a float: "); // Taking multiple inputs scanf("%d%f", &a, &b); printf("You entered %d and %f", a, b); return 0; }
#include Directive in C
#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program. Here are the two types of file that can be included using #include: • Header File or Standard files: This is a file which contains C/C++ function declarations and macro definitions to be shared between several source files. Functions like the printf(), scanf(), cout, cin and various other input-output or other standard functions are contained within different header files. So to utilise those functions, the users need to import a few header files which define the required functions. • User-defined files: These files resembles the header files, except for the fact that they are written and defined by the user itself. This saves the user from writing a particular function multiple times. Once a user-defined file is written, it can be imported anywhere in the program using the #include preprocessor.
Syntax for #include Directive in C
#include "user-defined_file"
Including using " ": When using the double quotes(" "), the preprocessor access the current directory in which the source "header_file" is located. This type is mainly used to access any header files of the user's program or user-defined files.