Happy Codings - Programming Code Examples

C Programming Code Examples

C > Games and Graphics Code Examples

3D graphics in C

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254
/* 3D graphics in C */ #include<graphics.h> #include<dos.h> #include<stdio.h> void mainscreenin17408(int sx,int sy,int ex,int ey); void mainscreenin27408(int sx,int sy,int ex,int ey); void dia7408(); void main() { int gd=DETECT,gm; int sx,sy,ex,ey; initgraph(&gd,&gm,"e:\tc\bgi"); sx=15; sy=10; ex=630; ey=470; mainscreenin17408(sx,sy,ex,ey); mainscreenin27408(sx,sy,ex,ey); dia7408(); getch(); } void mainscreenin17408(int sx,int sy,int ex,int ey) { setfillstyle(1,7); bar(sx,sy,ex,ey); setfillstyle(1,7); setcolor(15); line(sx,sy,sx,ey); line(sx,sy,ex,sy); line(sx,sy,sx,ey); line(sx,sy,ex,sy); setcolor(0); line(ex,sy,ex,ey); line(ex,sy,ex,ey); line(sx,ey,ex,ey); line(sx,ey,ex,ey); settextstyle(0,0,0); setfillstyle(1,1); bar(sx+2,sy+2,ex-2,sy+20); setcolor(13); settextstyle(8,0,1); outtextxy(sx+190,sy-5,"IC 7408-AND GATE"); //for x setfillstyle(1,7); bar(ex-15,sy+4,ex-4,sy+15); setcolor(15); line(ex-15,sy+4,ex-4,sy+4); line(ex-15,sy+4,ex-15,sy+15); setcolor(0); line(ex-15,sy+15,ex-4,sy+15); line(ex-4,sy+4,ex-4,sy+15); setcolor(1); settextstyle(0,0,1); outtextxy(ex-13,sy+5,"x"); setfillstyle(1,7); } void mainscreenin27408(int sx,int sy,int ex,int ey) { sx=sx+15; sy=sy+24; ex=ex-17; ey=ey-9; setcolor(0); line(sx,sy,sx,ey); line(sx,sy,ex,sy); line(sx,sy,sx,ey); line(sx,sy,ex,sy); setcolor(15); line(ex,sy,ex,ey); line(ex,sy,ex,ey); line(sx,ey,ex,ey); line(sx,ey,ex,ey); } void dia7408() { int x1,y1,x2,y2,x3,y3,x4,y4,x5,y5,x6,y6,x7,y7,i; setcolor(0); rectangle(61,83,410,259);//body setfillstyle(1,9); floodfill(107,137,0); arc(62,166,270,90,16); setfillstyle(1,6); floodfill(68,165,0); //for drawing leads x1=62; y1=67; x2=84; y2=83; x3=73; y3=73; for(i=0;i<8;i++)//for upper part { rectangle(x1,y1,x2,y2); x1+=46; x2+=46; setfillstyle(1,14); floodfill(x3,y3,0); x3+=46; } x1=62; y1=259; x2=84; y2=275; x3=72; y3=267; for(i=0;i<8;i++)//for lower part { rectangle(x1,y1,x2,y2); x1+=46; x2+=46; setfillstyle(1,14); floodfill(x3,y3,0); x3+=46; } //end of ic's pin //start of ic internal configuration outtextxy(70,264,"1"); outtextxy(65,289,"A1"); outtextxy(116,264,"2"); outtextxy(112,289,"B1"); outtextxy(163,264,"3"); outtextxy(161,289,"Y1"); outtextxy(207,264,"4"); outtextxy(205,289,"A2"); outtextxy(253,264,"5"); outtextxy(250,289,"B2"); outtextxy(299,264,"6"); outtextxy(297,289,"Y2"); outtextxy(343,264,"7"); outtextxy(340,289,"GND"); outtextxy(390,264,"8"); outtextxy(387,289,"Y"); outtextxy(65,74,"16"); outtextxy(62,55,"Vcc"); outtextxy(111,74,"15"); outtextxy(112,54,"A4"); outtextxy(158,74,"14"); outtextxy(159,54,"B4"); outtextxy(204,74,"13"); outtextxy(205,54,"Y4"); outtextxy(250,74,"12"); outtextxy(248,54,"A3"); outtextxy(295,74,"11"); outtextxy(297,54,"B3"); outtextxy(340,74,"10"); outtextxy(337,54,"Y3"); outtextxy(394,74,"9"); outtextxy(387,54,"bv"); settextstyle(1,0,4); setlinestyle(0,0,3); setcolor(15); line(440,60,599,60); line(440,60,440,220); setcolor(0); line(440,220,599,220); line(599,220,599,60); setlinestyle(1,0,1); setfillstyle(1,0); setcolor(0); bar(447,63,592,90); settextstyle(1,0,1); setcolor(14); outtextxy(460,68,"RESULTS"); setcolor(2); for(y1=102,i=0;i<4;i++) { circle(462,y1,10); setfillstyle(1,4); floodfill(462,y1,2); y1+=30; } setlinestyle(0,0,1); setcolor(15); line(120,400,190,400); line(120,400,120,450); setcolor(0); line(120,450,190,450); line(190,450,190,400); setcolor(0); outtextxy(130,410,"Index"); setcolor(15); line(250,400,320,400); line(250,400,250,450); setcolor(0); line(250,450,320,450); line(320,450,320,400); outtextxy(260,410,"Exit"); settextstyle(1,0,3); setcolor(RED); outtextxy(150,320,"PIN DIAGRAM"); setlinestyle(0,0,3); line(150,350,297,350); setlinestyle(0,0,3); setcolor(15); line(420,270,600,270); line(420,270,420,440); setcolor(0); line(420,440,600,440); line(600,440,600,270); bar(422,272,596,310); setcolor(14); outtextxy(425,280,"Truth Table"); setcolor(MAGENTA); setlinestyle(0,0,1); line(430,320,590,320); line(430,320,430,430); line(430,430,590,430); line(590,430,590,320); line(530,320,530,430); setcolor(BROWN); settextstyle(0,0,1); outtextxy(460,330,"INPUTS"); outtextxy(540,330,"OUTPUT"); setcolor(MAGENTA); line(430,345,590,345);//for line after input and output line(480,345,480,430);//line for middle setcolor(12); outtextxy(450,355,"L"); outtextxy(500,355,"L"); outtextxy(560,355,"L"); outtextxy(450,375,"L"); outtextxy(500,375,"H"); outtextxy(560,375,"L"); outtextxy(450,395,"H"); outtextxy(500,395,"L"); outtextxy(560,395,"L"); outtextxy(450,415,"H"); outtextxy(500,415,"H"); outtextxy(560,415,"H"); setcolor(MAGENTA); line(430,370,590,370); line(430,390,590,390); line(430,410,590,410); line(430,430,590,430); }
Assignment Operators in C
Assignment operators are used to assign the value, variable and function to another variable. Assignment operators in C are some of the C Programming Operator, which are useful to assign the values to the declared variables. Let's discuss the various types of the assignment operators such as =, +=, -=, /=, *= and %=. The following table lists the assignment operators supported by the C language:
=
Simple assignment operator. Assigns values from right side operands to left side operand
+=
Add AND assignment operator. It adds the right operand to the left operand and assign the result to the left operand.
-=
Subtract AND assignment operator. It subtracts the right operand from the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand.
*=
Multiply AND assignment operator. It multiplies the right operand with the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand.
/=
Divide AND assignment operator. It divides the left operand with the right operand and assigns the result to the left operand.
%=
Modulus AND assignment operator. It takes modulus using two operands and assigns the result to the left operand.
<<=
Left shift AND assignment operator.
>>=
Right shift AND assignment operator.
&=
Bitwise AND assignment operator.
^=
Bitwise exclusive OR and assignment operator.
|=
Bitwise inclusive OR and assignment operator.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43
/* assignment operators in C language */ #include <stdio.h> main() { int a = 23; int c ; c = a; printf("Line 1 - = Operator Example, Value of c = %d\n", c ); c += a; printf("Line 2 - += Operator Example, Value of c = %d\n", c ); c -= a; printf("Line 3 - -= Operator Example, Value of c = %d\n", c ); c *= a; printf("Line 4 - *= Operator Example, Value of c = %d\n", c ); c /= a; printf("Line 5 - /= Operator Example, Value of c = %d\n", c ); c = 120; c %= a; printf("Line 6 - %= Operator Example, Value of c = %d\n", c ); c <<= 2; printf("Line 7 - <<= Operator Example, Value of c = %d\n", c ); c >>= 2; printf("Line 8 - >>= Operator Example, Value of c = %d\n", c ); c &= 2; printf("Line 9 - &= Operator Example, Value of c = %d\n", c ); c ^= 2; printf("Line 10 - ^= Operator Example, Value of c = %d\n", c ); c |= 2; printf("Line 11 - |= Operator Example, Value of c = %d\n", c ); }
bar() Function in C
bar() function is a C graphics function that is used to draw graphics in the C programming language. The graphics.h header contains functions that work for drawing graphics. The bar() function is also defined in the header file. The bar() function is used to draw a bar ( of bar graph) which is a 2-dimensional figure. It is filled rectangular figure. The function takes four arguments that are the coordinates of (X, Y) coordinates of the top-left corner of the bar {left and top } and (X, Y) coordinates of the bottom-right corner of the bar {right and bottom}.
Syntax for bar() Function in C
#include <graphics.h> void bar(int left, int top, int right, int bottom);
left
X coordinate of top left corner.
top
Y coordinate of top left corner.
right
X coordinate of bottom right corner.
bottom
Y coordinate of bottom right corner. Current fill pattern and fill color is used to fill the bar. To change fill pattern and fill color use setfillstyle.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
/* draw a 2-dimensional, rectangular filled in bar by bar() function example */ // C implementation of bar() function #include <graphics.h> // driver code int main() { // gm is Graphics mode which is // a computer display mode that // generates image using pixels. // DETECT is a macro defined in // "graphics.h" header file int gd = DETECT, gm; // initgraph initializes the // graphics system by loading a // graphics driver from disk initgraph(&gd, &gm, ""); // location of sides int left, top, right, bottom; // left, top, right, bottom denotes // location of rectangular bar bar(left = 150, top = 150, right = 190, bottom = 350); bar(left = 220, top = 250, right = 260, bottom = 350); bar(left = 290, top = 200, right = 330, bottom = 350); // y axis line line(100, 50, 100, 350); // x axis line line(100, 350, 400, 350); getch(); // closegraph function closes the // graphics mode and deallocates // all memory allocated by // graphics system . closegraph(); return 0; }
setlinestyle() Function in C
setlinestyle() is a function which is used to draw the line of different- different styles. Turbo C compiler provides five line styles that are solid, dotted, center, dashed and user defined. These all five line styles are already enumerated in graphics.h header file as given below: setlinestyle() function contains three parameters type, pattern and thickness.
Syntax for setlinestyle() Function in C
#include <graphics.h> void setlinestyle(int linestyle, unsigned upattern, int thickness);
linestyle
First parameter contains the type of line like solid, dashed or dotted etc. • SOLID_LINE 0 Solid line • DOTTED_LINE 1 Dotted line • CENTER_LINE 2 Centered line • DASHED_LINE 3 Dashed line • USERBIT_LINE 4 User-defined line style
upattern
Second parameter is applicable only when type of line is user defined.
thickness
Third parameter specifies the thickness of the line it takes values 1 (line thickness of one pixel (normal)) or 3 (line thickness of three pixels (thick). • NORM_WIDTH 1 1 pixel wide • THICK_WIDTH 3 3 pixels wide Note: The linestyle parameter does not affect arcs, circles, ellipses, or pie slices. Only the thickness parameter is used. If invalid input is passed to setlinestyle, graphresult returns -11, and the current line style remains unchanged.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
/* set the style for all lines drawn by line, lineto, rectangle, drawpoly by setlinestyle() function example */ // C Implementation for setlinestyle() #include <graphics.h> // driver code int main() { // gm is Graphics mode which is // a computer display mode that // generates image using pixels. // DETECT is a macro defined in // "graphics.h" header file int gd = DETECT, gm; // variable to change the // line styles int c; // initial coordinate to // draw line int x = 200, y = 100; // initgraph initializes the // graphics system by loading a // graphics driver from disk initgraph(&gd, &gm, ""); // To keep track of lines for ( c = 0 ; c < 5 ; c++ ) { // setlinestyle function setlinestyle(c, 0, 1); // Drawing line line(x, y, x+200, y); y = y + 25; } getch(); // closegraph function closes the // graphics mode and deallocates // all memory allocated by // graphics system . closegraph(); return 0; }
getch() Function in C
The getch() is a predefined non-standard function that is defined in conio.h header file. It is mostly used by the Dev C/C++, MS- DOS's compilers like Turbo C to hold the screen until the user passes a single value to exit from the console screen. It can also be used to read a single byte character or string from the keyboard and then print. It does not hold any parameters. It has no buffer area to store the input character in a program.
Syntax for getch() Function in C
#include <conio.h> int getch(void);
The getch() function does not accept any parameter from the user. It returns the ASCII value of the key pressed by the user as an input. We use a getch() function in a C/ C++ program to hold the output screen for some time until the user passes a key from the keyboard to exit the console screen. Using getch() function, we can hide the input character provided by the users in the ATM PIN, password, etc. • getch() method pauses the Output Console until a key is pressed. • It does not use any buffer to store the input character. • The entered character is immediately returned without waiting for the enter key. • The entered character does not show up on the console. • The getch() method can be used to accept hidden inputs like password, ATM pin numbers, etc.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46
/* wait for any character input from keyboard by getch() function example. */ // C code to illustrate working of // getch() to accept hidden inputs #include <conio.h> #include <dos.h> // delay() #include <stdio.h> #include <string.h> void main() { // Taking the password of 8 characters char pwd[9]; int i; // To clear the screen clrscr(); printf("Enter Password: "); for (i = 0; i < 8; i++) { // Get the hidden input // using getch() method pwd[i] = getch(); // Print * to show that // a character is entered printf("*"); } pwd[i] = '\0'; printf("\n"); // Now the hidden input is stored in pwd[] // So any operation can be done on it // Here we are just printing printf("Entered password: "); for (i = 0; pwd[i] != '\0'; i++) printf("%c", pwd[i]); // Now the console will wait // for a key to be pressed getch(); }
settextstyle() Function in C
Settextstyle function is used to change the way in which text appears, using it we can modify the size of text, change direction of text and change the font of text. settextstyle sets the text font, the direction in which text is displayed, and the size of the characters. A call to settextstyle affects all text output by outtext and outtextxy.
Syntax for settextstyle() Function in C
#include <graphics.h> void settextstyle(int font, int direction, int charsize);
font
One 8x8 bit-mapped font and several "stroked" fonts are available. The 8x8 bit-mapped font is the default. The enumeration font_names, which is defined in graphics.h, provides names for these different font settings: • DEFAULT_FONT – 0 8x8 bit-mapped font • TRIPLEX_FONT – 1 Stroked triplex font • SMALL_FONT – 2 Stroked small font • SANS_SERIF_FONT – 3 Stroked sans-serif font • GOTHIC_FONT – 4 Stroked gothic font • SCRIPT_FONT – 5 Stroked script font • SIMPLEX_FONT – 6 Stroked triplex script font • TRIPLEX_SCR_FONT – 7 Stroked triplex script font • COMPLEX_FONT – 8 Stroked complex font • EUROPEAN_FONT – 9 Stroked European font • BOLD_FONT – 10 Stroked bold font The default bit-mapped font is built into the graphics system. Stroked fonts are stored in *.CHR disk files, and only one at a time is kept in memory. Therefore, when you select a stroked font (different from the last selected stroked font), the corresponding *.CHR file must be loaded from disk. To avoid this loading when several stroked fonts are used, you can link font files into your program. Do this by converting them into object files with the BGIOBJ utility, then registering them through registerbgifont.
direction
Font directions supported are horizontal text (left to right) and vertical text (rotated 90 degrees counterclockwise). The default direction is HORIZ_DIR. The size of each character can be magnified using the charsize factor. If charsize is nonzero, it can affect bit-mapped or stroked characters. A charsize value of 0 can be used only with stroked fonts.
charsize
• If charsize equals 1, outtext and outtextxy displays characters from the 8x8 bit-mapped font in an 8x8 pixel rectangle onscreen. • If charsize equals 2, these output functions display characters from the 8x8 bit-mapped font in a 16*16 pixel rectangle, and so on (up to a limit of ten times the normal size). • When charsize equals 0, the output functions outtext and outtextxy magnify the stroked font text using either the default character magnification factor (4) or the user-defined character size given by setusercharsize. Always use textheight and textwidth to determine the actual dimensions of the text. This function needs to be called before the outtextxy() function, otherwise there will be no effect on text and output will be the same.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51
/* set the text font, the direction in which text is displayed, and the size of the characters by settextstyle() function example. */ // C++ implementation for // settextstyle() function #include <graphics.h> // driver code int main() { // gm is Graphics mode which is // a computer display mode that // generates image using pixels. // DETECT is a macro defined in // "graphics.h" header file int gd = DETECT, gm; // initgraph initializes the // graphics system by loading // a graphics driver from disk initgraph(&gd, &gm, ""); // location of text int x = 150; int y = 150; // font style int font = 8; // font direction int direction = 0; // font size int font_size = 5; // for setting text style settextstyle(font, direction, font_size); // for printing text in graphics window outtextxy(x, y, "Happy Codings"); getch(); // closegraph function closes the // graphics mode and deallocates // all memory allocated by graphics // system . closegraph(); return 0; }
initgraph() Function in C
initgraph initializes the graphics system by loading a graphics driver from disk (or validating a registered driver), and putting the system into graphics mode. To start the graphics system, first call the initgraph function. initgraph loads the graphics driver and puts the system into graphics mode. You can tell initgraph to use a particular graphics driver and mode, or to autodetect the attached video adapter at run time and pick the corresponding driver. If you tell initgraph to autodetect, it calls detectgraph to select a graphics driver and mode. initgraph also resets all graphics settings to their defaults (current position, palette, color, viewport, and so on) and resets graphresult to 0. Normally, initgraph loads a graphics driver by allocating memory for the driver (through _graphgetmem), then loading the appropriate .BGI file from disk. As an alternative to this dynamic loading scheme, you can link a graphics driver file (or several of them) directly into your executable program file.
Syntax for initgraph() Function in C
#include <graphics.h> void initgraph(int *graphdriver, int *graphmode, char *pathtodriver);
pathtodriver
pathtodriver specifies the directory path where initgraph looks for graphics drivers. initgraph first looks in the path specified in pathtodriver, then (if they are not there) in the current directory. Accordingly, if pathtodriver is null, the driver files (*.BGI) must be in the current directory. This is also the path settextstyle searches for the stroked character font files (*.CHR).
graphdriver
graphdriver is an integer that specifies the graphics driver to be used. You can give it a value using a constant of the graphics_drivers enumeration type, which is defined in graphics.h and listed below. • DETECT – 0 (requests autodetect) • CGA – 1 • MCGA – 2 • EGA – 3 • EGA64 – 4 • EGAMONO – 5 • IBM8514 – 6 • HERCMONO – 7 • ATT400 – 8 • VGA – 9 • PC3270 – 10
graphmode
graphmode is an integer that specifies the initial graphics mode (unless *graphdriver equals DETECT; in which case, *graphmode is set by initgraph to the highest resolution available for the detected driver). You can give *graphmode a value using a constant of the graphics_modes enumeration type, which is defined in graphics.h and listed below. initgraph always sets the internal error code; on success, it sets the code to 0. If an error occurred, *graphdriver is set to -2, -3, -4, or -5, and graphresult returns the same value as listed below: • grNotDetected: -2 Cannot detect a graphics card • grFileNotFound: -3 Cannot find driver file • grInvalidDriver: -4 Invalid driver • grNoLoadMem: -5 Insufficient memory to load driver
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35
/* initgraph initializes the graphics system by loading a graphics driver by initgraph() function example*/ #include <graphics.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <conio.h> int main(void) { /* request auto detection */ int gdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode; /* initialize graphics mode */ initgraph(&gdriver, &gmode, ""); /* read result of initialization */ errorcode = graphresult(); if (errorcode != grOk) /* an error occurred */ { printf("Graphics error: %s\n", grapherrormsg(errorcode)); printf("Press any key to halt:"); getch(); exit(1); /* return with error code */ } /* draw a line */ line(0, 0, getmaxx(), getmaxy()); /* clean up */ getch(); closegraph(); return 0; }
circle() Function in C
This library function is declared in graphics.h and used to draw a circle; it takes centre point coordinates and radius. Circle function is used to draw a circle with center (x,y) and third parameter specifies the radius of the circle. The code given below draws a circle. Where, (x, y) is center of the circle. 'radius' is the Radius of the circle.
Syntax for circle() Function in C
#include <graphics.h> circle(x, y, radius);
x
X-coordinate of the circle
y
Y-coordinate of the circle
radius
radius of the circle This function does not return any value.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
/* draw a circle with center at (x, y) and given radius by circle() function example. */ // C Implementation for drawing circle #include <graphics.h> //driver code int main() { // gm is Graphics mode which is // a computer display mode that // generates image using pixels. // DETECT is a macro defined in // "graphics.h" header file int gd = DETECT, gm; // initgraph initializes the // graphics system by loading a // graphics driver from disk initgraph(&gd, &gm, ""); // circle function circle(250, 200, 50); getch(); // closegraph function closes the // graphics mode and deallocates // all memory allocated by // graphics system . closegraph(); return 0; }
floodfill() Function in C
floodfill function is used to fill an enclosed area. Current fill pattern and fill color is used to fill the area.(x, y) is any point on the screen if (x,y) lies inside the area then inside will be filled otherwise outside will be filled,border specifies the color of boundary of area. To change fill pattern and fill color use setfillstyle. floodfill fills an enclosed area on bitmap devices. (x,y) is a "seed point" within the enclosed area to be filled. The area bounded by the color border is flooded with the current fill pattern and fill color. If the seed point is within an enclosed area, the inside will be filled. If the seed is outside the enclosed area, the exterior will be filled. Use fillpoly instead of floodfill whenever possible so that you can maintain code compatibility with future versions.
Syntax for floodfill() Function in C
#include <graphics.h> void floodfill(int x, int y, int border);
x
X coordinate of point on the screen
y
Y coordinate of point on the screen
border
specifies the color of border of the enclosed area. int values corresponding to colors: • BLACK – 0 • BLUE – 1 • GREEN – 2 • CYAN – 3 • RED – 4 • MAGENTA – 5 • BROWN – 6 • LIGHTGRAY – 7 • DARKGRAY – 8 • LIGHTBLUE – 9 • LIGHTGREEN – 10 • LIGHTCYAN – 11 • LIGHTRED – 12 • LIGHTMAGENTA – 13 • YELLOW – 14 • WHITE – 15 If an error occurs while flooding a region, graphresult returns a value of -7.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49
/* fill an enclosed area on bitmap devices by floodfill() function code example */ #include <graphics.h> // driver code int main() { // gm is Graphics mode which is // a computer display mode that // generates image using pixels. // DETECT is a macro defined in // "graphics.h" header file int gd = DETECT, gm; // initgraph initializes the // graphics system by loading // a graphics driver from disk initgraph(&gd, &gm, " "); // center and radius of circle int x_circle = 250; int y_circle = 250; int radius=100; // setting border color int border_color = WHITE; // set color and pattern setfillstyle(HATCH_FILL,RED); // x and y is a position and // radius is for radius of circle circle(x_circle,y_circle,radius); // fill the color at location // (x, y) with in border color floodfill(x_circle,y_circle,border_color); getch(); // closegraph function closes the // graphics mode and deallocates // all memory allocated by // graphics system closegraph(); return 0; }
For Loop Statement in C
The for loop is used in the case where we need to execute some part of the code until the given condition is satisfied. The for loop is also called as a per-tested loop. It is better to use for loop if the number of iteration is known in advance. The for-loop statement is a very specialized while loop, which increases the readability of a program. It is frequently used to traverse the data structures like the array and linked list.
Syntax of For Loop Statement in C
for (initialization; condition test; increment or decrement) { //Statements to be executed repeatedly }
Step 1
First initialization happens and the counter variable gets initialized.
Step 2
In the second step the condition is checked, where the counter variable is tested for the given condition, if the condition returns true then the C statements inside the body of for loop gets executed, if the condition returns false then the for loop gets terminated and the control comes out of the loop.
Step 3
After successful execution of statements inside the body of loop, the counter variable is incremented or decremented, depending on the operation (++ or --).
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
/* for loop statement in C language */ // Program to calculate the sum of first n natural numbers // Positive integers 1,2,3...n are known as natural numbers #include <stdio.h> int main() { int num, count, sum = 0; printf("Enter a positive integer: "); scanf("%d", &num); // for loop terminates when num is less than count for(count = 1; count <= num; ++count) { sum += count; } printf("Sum = %d", sum); return 0; }
setfillstyle() Function in C
The header file graphics.h contains setfillstyle() function which sets the current fill pattern and fill color. Current fill pattern and fill color is used to fill the area. setfillstyle sets the current fill pattern and fill color. To set a user-defined fill pattern, do not give a pattern of 12 (USER_FILL) to setfillstyle; instead, call setfillpattern.
Syntax for setfillstyle() Function in C
#include<graphics.h> void setfillstyle(int pattern, int color);
color
Specify the color • BLACK – 0 • BLUE – 1 • GREEN – 2 • CYAN – 3 • RED – 4 • MAGENTA – 5 • BROWN – 6 • LIGHTGRAY – 7 • DARKGRAY – 8 • LIGHTBLUE – 9 • LIGHTGREEN – 10 • LIGHTCYAN – 11 • LIGHTRED – 12 • LIGHTMAGENTA – 13 • YELLOW – 14 • WHITE – 15
pattern
Specify the pattern • EMPTY_FILL – 0 • SOLID_FILL – 1 • LINE_FILL – 2 • LTSLASH_FILL – 3 • SLASH_FILL – 4 • BKSLASH_FILL – 5 • LTBKSLASH_FILL – 6 • HATCH_FILL – 7 • XHATCH_FILL – 8 • INTERLEAVE_FILL – 9 • WIDE_DOT_FILL – 10 • CLOSE_DOT_FILL – 11 • USER_FILL – 12 If invalid input is passed to setfillstyle, graphresult returns -1(grError), and the current fill pattern and fill color remain unchanged. Note: The EMPTY_FILL style is like a solid fill using the current background color (which is set by setbkcolor).
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69
/* set the current fill pattern and fill color by setfillstyle() function example */ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<graphics.h> void main() { int gd=DETECT, gm,bkcolor; initgraph(&gd,&gm," "); setfillstyle(EMPTY_FILL,YELLOW); bar3d(2,150,100,200,25,1); setfillstyle(SOLID_FILL,RED); bar3d(150,150,250,200,25,1); setfillstyle(LINE_FILL,BLUE); bar3d(300,150,400,200,25,1); setfillstyle(LTSLASH_FILL,GREEN); bar3d(450,150,550,200,25,1); setfillstyle(SLASH_FILL,CYAN); bar3d(2,250,100,300,25,1); setfillstyle(BKSLASH_FILL,BROWN); bar3d(150,250,250,300,25,1); setfillstyle(LTBKSLASH_FILL,MAGENTA); bar3d(300,250,400,300,25,1); setfillstyle(HATCH_FILL,LIGHTRED); bar3d(450,250,550,300,25,1); setfillstyle(XHATCH_FILL,DARKGRAY); bar3d(2,350,100,400,25,1); setfillstyle(INTERLEAVE_FILL,YELLOW); bar3d(150,350,250,400,25,1); setfillstyle(WIDE_DOT_FILL,LIGHTMAGENTA); bar3d(300,350,400,400,25,1); setfillstyle(CLOSE_DOT_FILL,LIGHTGRAY); bar3d(450,350,550,400,25,1); getch(); closegraph(); }
main() Function in C
In C, the "main" function is treated the same as every function, it has a return type (and in some cases accepts inputs via parameters). The only difference is that the main function is "called" by the operating system when the user runs the program. Thus the main function is always the first code executed when a program starts. main() function is a user defined, body of the function is defined by the programmer or we can say main() is programmer/user implemented function, whose prototype is predefined in the compiler. Hence we can say that main() in c programming is user defined as well as predefined because it's prototype is predefined. main() is a system (compiler) declared function whose defined by the user, which is invoked automatically by the operating system when program is being executed. Its first function or entry point of the program from where program start executed, program's execution starts from the main. So main is an important function in c , c++ programming language.
Syntax for main() Function in C
void main() { ......... // codes start from here ......... }
void
is a keyword in C language, void means nothing, whenever we use void as a function return type then that function nothing return. here main() function no return any value. In place of void we can also use int return type of main() function, at that time main() return integer type value.
main
is a name of function which is predefined function in C library. • An operating system always calls the main() function when a programmers or users execute their programming code. • It is responsible for starting and ends of the program. • It is a universally accepted keyword in programming language and cannot change its meaning and name. • A main() function is a user-defined function in C that means we can pass parameters to the main() function according to the requirement of a program. • A main() function is used to invoke the programming code at the run time, not at the compile time of a program. • A main() function is followed by opening and closing parenthesis brackets.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
/* basic c program by main() function example */ #include <stdio.h> #include <conio.h> main() { printf (" It is a main() function "); int fun2(); // jump to void fun1() function printf ("\n Finally exit from the main() function. "); } void fun1() { printf (" It is a second function. "); printf (" Exit from the void fun1() function. "); } int fun2() { void fun1(); // jump to the int fun1() function printf (" It is a third function. "); printf (" Exit from the int fun2() function. "); return 0; }
#include Directive in C
#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program. Here are the two types of file that can be included using #include: • Header File or Standard files: This is a file which contains C/C++ function declarations and macro definitions to be shared between several source files. Functions like the printf(), scanf(), cout, cin and various other input-output or other standard functions are contained within different header files. So to utilise those functions, the users need to import a few header files which define the required functions. • User-defined files: These files resembles the header files, except for the fact that they are written and defined by the user itself. This saves the user from writing a particular function multiple times. Once a user-defined file is written, it can be imported anywhere in the program using the #include preprocessor.
Syntax for #include Directive in C
#include "user-defined_file"
Including using " ": When using the double quotes(" "), the preprocessor access the current directory in which the source "header_file" is located. This type is mainly used to access any header files of the user's program or user-defined files.
#include <header_file>
Including using <>: While importing file using angular brackets(<>), the the preprocessor uses a predetermined directory path to access the file. It is mainly used to access system header files located in the standard system directories.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
/* #include directive tells the preprocessor to insert the contents of another file into the source code at the point where the #include directive is found. */ // C program to illustrate file inclusion // <> used to import system header file #include <stdio.h> // " " used to import user-defined file #include "process.h" // main function int main() { // add function defined in process.h add(10, 20); // mult function defined in process.h multiply(10, 20); // printf defined in stdio.h printf("Process completed"); return 0; }
rectangle() Function in C
rectangle() is used to draw a rectangle. Coordinates of left top and right bottom corner are required to draw the rectangle. left specifies the X-coordinate of top left corner, top specifies the Y-coordinate of top left corner, right specifies the X-coordinate of right bottom corner, bottom specifies the Y-coordinate of right bottom corner.
Syntax for rectangle() Function in C
#include<graphics.h> rectangle(int left, int top, int right, int bottom);
left
X coordinate of top left corner.
top
Y coordinate of top left corner.
right
X coordinate of bottom right corner.
bottom
Y coordinate of bottom right corner.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
/* draw a rectangle by rectangle() function example */ // C program to draw a rectangle #include <graphics.h> // Driver code int main() { // gm is Graphics mode which is a computer display // mode that generates image using pixels. // DETECT is a macro defined in "graphics.h" header file int gd = DETECT, gm; // location of left, top, right, bottom int left = 150, top = 150; int right = 450, bottom = 450; // initgraph initializes the graphics system // by loading a graphics driver from disk initgraph(&gd, &gm, ""); // rectangle function rectangle(left, top, right, bottom); getch(); // closegraph function closes the graphics // mode and deallocates all memory allocated // by graphics system . closegraph(); return 0; }
setcolor() Function in C
setcolor() function is used to set the foreground color in graphics mode. After resetting the foreground color you will get the text or any other shape which you want to draw in that color. setcolor sets the current drawing color to color, which can range from 0 to getmaxcolor. The current drawing color is the value to which pixels are set when lines, and so on are drawn. The drawing colors shown below are available for the CGA and EGA, respectively.
Syntax for setcolor() Function in C
#include <graphics.h> void setcolor(int color);
Each color is assigned a number. The possible color values are from 0 - 15: • BLACK – 0 • BLUE – 1 • GREEN – 2 • CYAN – 3 • RED – 4 • MAGENTA – 5 • BROWN – 6 • LIGHTGRAY – 7 • DARKGRAY – 8 • LIGHTBLUE – 9 • LIGHTGREEN – 10 • LIGHTCYAN – 11 • LIGHTRED – 12 • LIGHTMAGENTA – 13 • YELLOW – 14 • WHITE – 15 setcolor() functions contains only one argument that is color. It may be the color name enumerated in graphics.h header file or number assigned with that color.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
/* set the current drawing color to color, which can range from 0 to getmaxcolor by setcolor() function example */ // C Implementation for setcolor() #include <graphics.h> #include <stdio.h> // driver code int main() { // gm is Graphics mode which is // a computer display mode that // generates image using pixels. // DETECT is a macro defined in // "graphics.h" header file int gd = DETECT, gm, color; // initgraph initializes the // graphics system by loading a // graphics driver from disk initgraph(&gd, &gm, ""); // Draws circle in white color // center at (100, 100) and radius // as 50 circle(100, 100, 50); // setcolor function setcolor(GREEN); // Draws circle in green color // center at (200, 200) and radius // as 50 circle(200, 200, 50); getch(); // closegraph function closes the // graphics mode and deallocates // all memory allocated by // graphics system . closegraph(); return 0; }
line() Function in C
line() is a library function of graphics.c in c programming language which is used to draw a line from two coordinates. line() function is used to draw a line from a point(x1,y1) to point(x2,y2) i.e. (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) are end points of the line.
Syntax for line() Function in C
#include <graphics.h> void line(int x1, int y1, int x2, int y2);
x1
X coordinate of first point
y1
Y coordinate of first point.
x2
X coordinate of second point.
y2
Y coordinate of second point. This is a predefined function named line which is used to draw a line on the output screen. It takes 4 arguments, first two parameters represent an initial point and the last two arguments are for the final points of the line.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
/* draw a line from a point(x1,y1) to point(x2,y2) by line() function example */ /*C graphics program to draw a line.*/ #include <graphics.h> #include <conio.h> main() { int gd = DETECT, gm; //init graphics initgraph(&gd, &gm, "C:/TURBOC3/BGI"); /* if you are using turboc2 use below line to init graphics: initgraph(&gd, &gm, "C:/TC/BGI"); */ //draw a line /* line() function description parameter left to right x1: 100 y1: 100 x2: 200 y2: 100 */ line(100,100,200,100); //will draw a horizontal line line(10,10,200,10); //will draw another horizonatl line getch(); closegraph(); return 0; }
arc() Function in C
In the C programming language, there is an option to create an arc of a circle of a given radius with a given center coordinates and degree of the arc. The arc() function is used to create an arc. This arc function is included in graphics.h library in C which contains methods that can draw figures on the output screen. The function to make an arc(), accepts five parameters for x, y co-ordinate, starting angle, end angle and radius. This will make the arc will all the values are fine. The Example below takes care of all these things as it have four arcs implemented.
Syntax for arc() Function in C
#include <graphics.h> void arc(int x, int y, int start_angle, int end_angle, int radius);
x
x coordinate of the center of the arc
y
y coordinate of the center of the arc
start_angle
starting angle of arc
end_angle
ending angle of arc
radius
radius of the arc The header file graphics.h contains arc() function which draws an arc with center at (x, y) and given radius. start_angle is the starting point of angle and end_angle is the ending point of the angle. The value of the angle can vary from 0 to 360 degree.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
/* create an arc of a circle of a given radius with a given center coordinates and degree of the arc by arc() function code example */ #include <graphics.h> #include <conio.h> int main() { //initilizing graphic driver and //graphic mode variable int graphicdriver=DETECT,graphicmode; //calling initgraph with parameters initgraph(&graphicdriver,&graphicmode,"c:\\turboc3\\bgi"); //Printing message for user outtextxy(10, 10 + 10, "Program to draw arcs of diffrent sizes in C graphics"); // creating arcs using arc function. arc(80, 80, 0, 12, 50); arc(200, 100, 0, 200, 50); arc(300, 100, 0, 240, 50); arc(400, 100, 0, 120, 50); getch(); return 0; }
outtextxy() Function in C
outtextxy displays a text string in the viewport at the given position (x, y), using the current justification settings and the current font, direction, and size. To maintain code compatibility when using several fonts, use textwidth and textheight to determine the dimensions of the string. If a string is printed with the default font using outtext or outtextxy, any part of the string that extends outside the current viewport is truncated. outtextxy is for use in graphics mode; it will not work in text mode.
Syntax for outtextxy() Function in C
#include <graphics.h> void outtextxy(int x, int y, char *textstring);
x
x-coordinate of the point
y
y-coordinate of the point
textstring
string to be displayed where, x, y are coordinates of the point and, third argument contains the address of string to be displayed. This function does not return any value.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
/* display the text or string at a specified point (x, y) on the screen by outtextxy() function example */ // C Implementation for outtextxy() #include <graphics.h> // driver code int main() { // gm is Graphics mode which is // a computer display mode that // generates image using pixels. // DETECT is a macro defined in // "graphics.h" header file int gd = DETECT, gm; // initgraph initializes the // graphics system by loading a // graphics driver from disk initgraph(&gd, &gm, ""); // outtextxy function outtextxy(200, 150, "Hello, Have a good day !"); getch(); // closegraph function closes the // graphics mode and deallocates // all memory allocated by // graphics system . closegraph(); return 0; }


Step by step descriptive logic to create menu driven calculator that performs all basic math operations. Input 2 numbers and a Character from user in the given format. Store them in
Recursive function in C language to find GCD (HCF) of two numbers. Find GCD ( Greatest Common Divisor ) or HCF ( Highest Common Factor ) of two numbers using recursion in C