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C Programming Code Examples

C > Linked Lists Code Examples

C Program to Implement a Stack using Linked List

/* C Program to Implement a Stack using Linked List This C Program implement a stack using linked list. Stack is a type of queue that in practice is implemented as an area of memory that holds all local variables and parameters used by any function, and remembers the order in which functions are called so that function returns occur correctly. Each time a function is called, its local variables and parameters are "pushed onto" the stack. When the function returns,these locals and parameters are "popped." Because of this, the size of a program's stack fluctuates constantly as the program is running, but it has some maximum size. stack is as a last in, first out (LIFO) abstract data type and linear data structure. Linked list is a data structure consisting of a group of nodes which together represent a sequence. Here we need to apply the application of linkedlist to perform basic operations of stack. */ #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> struct node { int info; struct node *ptr; }*top,*top1,*temp; int topelement(); void push(int data); void pop(); void empty(); void display(); void destroy(); void stack_count(); void create(); int count = 0; void main() { int no, ch, e; printf("\n 1 - Push"); printf("\n 2 - Pop"); printf("\n 3 - Top"); printf("\n 4 - Empty"); printf("\n 5 - Exit"); printf("\n 6 - Dipslay"); printf("\n 7 - Stack Count"); printf("\n 8 - Destroy stack"); create(); while (1) { printf("\n Enter choice : "); scanf("%d", &ch); switch (ch) { case 1: printf("Enter data : "); scanf("%d", &no); push(no); break; case 2: pop(); break; case 3: if (top == NULL) printf("No elements in stack"); else { e = topelement(); printf("\n Top element : %d", e); } break; case 4: empty(); break; case 5: exit(0); case 6: display(); break; case 7: stack_count(); break; case 8: destroy(); break; default : printf(" Wrong choice, Please enter correct choice "); break; } } } /* Create empty stack */ void create() { top = NULL; } /* Count stack elements */ void stack_count() { printf("\n No. of elements in stack : %d", count); } /* Push data into stack */ void push(int data) { if (top == NULL) { top =(struct node *)malloc(1*sizeof(struct node)); top->ptr = NULL; top->info = data; } else { temp =(struct node *)malloc(1*sizeof(struct node)); temp->ptr = top; temp->info = data; top = temp; } count++; } /* Display stack elements */ void display() { top1 = top; if (top1 == NULL) { printf("Stack is empty"); return; } while (top1 != NULL) { printf("%d ", top1->info); top1 = top1->ptr; } } /* Pop Operation on stack */ void pop() { top1 = top; if (top1 == NULL) { printf("\n Error : Trying to pop from empty stack"); return; } else top1 = top1->ptr; printf("\n Popped value : %d", top->info); free(top); top = top1; count--; } /* Return top element */ int topelement() { return(top->info); } /* Check if stack is empty or not */ void empty() { if (top == NULL) printf("\n Stack is empty"); else printf("\n Stack is not empty with %d elements", count); } /* Destroy entire stack */ void destroy() { top1 = top; while (top1 != NULL) { top1 = top->ptr; free(top); top = top1; top1 = top1->ptr; } free(top1); top = NULL; printf("\n All stack elements destroyed"); count = 0; }

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program. Here are the two types of file that can be included using #include:

The if-else statement is used to perform two operations for a single condition. The if-else statement is an extension to the if statement using which, we can perform two different operations, i.e., one is for the correctness of that condition, and the other is for the incorrectness of the condition. Here, we must notice that if and else block cannot be executed simiulteneously. Using if-else statement is always preferable since it always invokes an otherwise case with every if condition.

In C, the "main" function is treated the same as every function, it has a return type (and in some cases accepts inputs via parameters). The only difference is that the main function is "called" by the operating system when the user runs the program. Thus the main function is always the first code executed when a program starts. main() function is a user defined, body of the function is defined by the programmer or we can say main() is programmer/user implemented function, whose prototype is predefined in the compiler. Hence we can say that main() in c programming is user defined as well as predefined because it's prototype is predefined. main() is a system (compiler) declared function whose defined by the user, which is invoked automatically by the operating system when program is being executed.

Switch statement in C tests the value of a variable and compares it with multiple cases. Once the case match is found, a block of statements associated with that particular case is executed. Each case in a block of a switch has a different name/number which is referred to as an identifier. The value provided by the user is compared with all the cases inside the switch block until the match is found. If a case match is NOT found, then the default statement is executed, and the control goes out of the switch block.

Writes the C string pointed by format to the standard output (stdout). If format includes format specifiers (subsequences beginning with %), the additional arguments following format are formatted and inserted in the resulting string replacing their respective specifiers. printf format string refers to a control parameter used by a class of functions in the input/output libraries of C programming language. The string is written in a simple template language: characters are usually copied literally into the function's output, but format specifiers, which start with a % character, indicate the location and method to translate a piece of data (such as a number) to characters. "printf" is the name of one of the main C output functions, and stands for "print formatted". printf format strings are complementary to scanf format strings, which provide formatted input (parsing). In both cases these provide simple functionality and fixed format compared to more sophisticated and flexible template engines or parsers,

The sizeof() operator is commonly used in C. It determines the size of the expression or the data type specified in the number of char-sized storage units. The sizeof() operator contains a single operand which can be either an expression or a data typecast where the cast is data type enclosed within parenthesis. The data type cannot only be primitive data types such as integer or floating data types, but it can also be pointer data types and compound data types such as unions and structs.

The free() function in C library allows you to release or deallocate the memory blocks which are previously allocated by calloc(), malloc() or realloc() functions. It frees up the memory blocks and returns the memory to heap. It helps freeing the memory in your program which will be available for later use. In C, the memory for variables is automatically deallocated at compile time. For dynamic memory allocation in C, you have to deallocate the memory explicitly. If not done, you may encounter out of memory error.

Read formatted data from stdin. Reads data from stdin and stores them according to the parameter format into the locations pointed by the additional arguments. The additional arguments should point to already allocated objects of the type specified by their corresponding format specifier within the format string. In C programming, scanf() is one of the commonly used function to take input from the user. The scanf() function reads formatted input from the standard input such as keyboards. The scanf() function enables the programmer to accept formatted inputs to the application or production code. Moreover, by using this function, the users can provide dynamic input values to the application.

The exit() function is used to terminate a process or function calling immediately in the program. It means any open file or function belonging to the process is closed immediately as the exit() function occurred in the program. The exit() function is the standard library function of the C, which is defined in the stdlib.h header file. So, we can say it is the function that forcefully terminates the current program and transfers the control to the operating system to exit the program. The exit(0) function determines the program terminates without any error message, and then the exit(1) function determines the program forcefully terminates the execution process.

The break is a keyword in C which is used to bring the program control out of the loop. The break statement is used inside loops or switch statement. The break statement breaks the loop one by one, i.e., in the case of nested loops, it breaks the inner loop first and then proceeds to outer loops.

While loop is also known as a pre-tested loop. In general, a while loop allows a part of the code to be executed multiple times depending upon a given boolean condition. It can be viewed as a repeating if statement. The while loop is mostly used in the case where the number of iterations is not known in advance. The while loop evaluates the test expression inside the parentheses (). If test expression is true, statements inside the body of while loop are executed. Then, test expression is evaluated again. The process goes on until test expression is evaluated to false. If test expression is false, the loop terminates.

Allocate memory block. Allocates a block of size bytes of memory, returning a pointer to the beginning of the block. The content of the newly allocated block of memory is not initialized, remaining with indeterminate values. If size is zero, the return value depends on the particular library implementation (it may or may not be a null pointer), but the returned pointer shall not be dereferenced. The "malloc" or "memory allocation" method in C is used to dynamically allocate a single large block of memory with the specified size. It returns a pointer of type void which can be cast into a pointer of any form. It doesn't Iniatialize memory at execution time so that it has initializes each block with the default garbage value initially.

C Program inserts an element in a specified position in a given array. C Programming language code takes a user input and inserts the desired element in the specified position.

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