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C Programming Code Examples

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Program to Replace Lowercase Characters by Uppercase & Vice-Versa

/* Program to Replace Lowercase Characters by Uppercase & Vice-Versa This program accepts the sentence and replaces lowercase characters by uppercase & vice-versa. 1. Take an an English sentence as input and store it in the array sentence[]. 2. Copy the last letter's position in the array to the variable count. 3. Using for loop and (islower()? toupper():tolower()) function replace lowercase characters by uppercase & vice-versa. Store this in the variable ch. 4. Print the variable ch as output and exit. C program to read an English sentence and replace lowercase characters by uppercase and vice-versa. Output the given sentence as well as the converted sentence on two different lines. */ #include <stdio.h> #include <ctype.h> void main() { char sentence[100]; int count, ch, i; printf("Enter a sentence \n"); for (i = 0;(sentence[i] = getchar()) != '\n'; i++) { ; } sentence[i] = '\0'; /* shows the number of chars accepted in a sentence */ count = i; printf("The given sentence is : %s", sentence); printf("\n Case changed sentence is: "); for (i = 0; i < count; i++) { ch = islower(sentence[i])? toupper(sentence[i]) : tolower(sentence[i]); putchar(ch); } }

Get character from stdin. Returns the next character from the standard input (stdin). It is equivalent to calling getc with stdin as argument. A getchar() function is a non-standard function whose meaning is already defined in the stdin.h header file to accept a single input from the user. In other words, it is the C library function that gets a single character (unsigned char) from the stdin. However, the getchar() function is similar to the getc() function, but there is a small difference between the getchar() and getc() function of the C programming language.

Write character to stdout. Writes a character to the standard output (stdout). It is equivalent to calling putc with stdout as second argument. putchar() function is a file handling function in C programming language which is used to write a character on standard output/screen. The putchar() function is used for printing character to a screen at current cursor location. It is unformatted character output functions. It is defined in header file stdio.h.

Convert lowercase letter to uppercase. Converts c to its uppercase equivalent if c is a lowercase letter and has an uppercase equivalent. If no such conversion is possible, the value returned is c unchanged. Notice that what is considered a letter may depend on the locale being used; In the default "C" locale, a lowercase letter is any of: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z, which translate respectively to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z.

Writes the C string pointed by format to the standard output (stdout). If format includes format specifiers (subsequences beginning with %), the additional arguments following format are formatted and inserted in the resulting string replacing their respective specifiers. printf format string refers to a control parameter used by a class of functions in the input/output libraries of C programming language. The string is written in a simple template language: characters are usually copied literally into the function's output, but format specifiers, which start with a % character, indicate the location and method to translate a piece of data (such as a number) to characters. "printf" is the name of one of the main C output functions, and stands for "print formatted". printf format strings are complementary to scanf format strings, which provide formatted input (parsing). In both cases these provide simple functionality and fixed format compared to more sophisticated and flexible template engines or parsers,

Checks whether c is a lowercase letter. Notice that what is considered a letter may depend on the locale being used; In the default "C" locale, a lowercase letter is any of: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z. Other locales may consider a different selection of characters as lowercase characters, but never characters that returns true for iscntrl, isdigit, ispunct or isspace. For a detailed chart on what the different ctype functions return for each character of the standard ANSII character set, see the reference for the <cctype> header.

In C, the "main" function is treated the same as every function, it has a return type (and in some cases accepts inputs via parameters). The only difference is that the main function is "called" by the operating system when the user runs the program. Thus the main function is always the first code executed when a program starts. main() function is a user defined, body of the function is defined by the programmer or we can say main() is programmer/user implemented function, whose prototype is predefined in the compiler. Hence we can say that main() in c programming is user defined as well as predefined because it's prototype is predefined. main() is a system (compiler) declared function whose defined by the user, which is invoked automatically by the operating system when program is being executed.

An array is defined as the collection of similar type of data items stored at contiguous memory locations. Arrays are the derived data type in C programming language which can store the primitive type of data such as int, char, double, float, etc. It also has the capability to store the collection of derived data types, such as pointers, structure, etc. The array is the simplest data structure where each data element can be randomly accessed by using its index number.

#include is a way of including a standard or user-defined file in the program and is mostly written at the beginning of any C/C++ program. This directive is read by the preprocessor and orders it to insert the content of a user-defined or system header file into the following program. These files are mainly imported from an outside source into the current program. The process of importing such files that might be system-defined or user-defined is known as File Inclusion. This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program. Here are the two types of file that can be included using #include:

The for loop is used in the case where we need to execute some part of the code until the given condition is satisfied. The for loop is also called as a per-tested loop. It is better to use for loop if the number of iteration is known in advance. The for-loop statement is a very specialized while loop, which increases the readability of a program. It is frequently used to traverse the data structures like the array and linked list.

Convert uppercase letter to lowercase. Converts c to its lowercase equivalent if c is an uppercase letter and has a lowercase equivalent. If no such conversion is possible, the value returned is c unchanged. Notice that what is considered a letter may depend on the locale being used; In the default "C" locale, an uppercase letter is any of: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z, which translate respectively to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z.

Create a structure. The name of the structure is StudentData. The Student is the variable of structure StudentData. Assigning the values of each struct member here. Displaying the...

C program code example to Define and use Global variables. Declare a global variable. Function prototypes. Hiding the global count. Function t1 using global variable. Function...

C program find sum of all odd numbers from 1 to n using for loop. Input upper limit to find sum of odd numbers from user. Store it in a variable say N and initialize other variable to

C program 'Copy one string to another' string using 'While loop'. Logic to copy one string to another string. Copy 'text1 to text2' character by character. Input a string from user, store it

In C program, we are going to accept a string. Program will check for word inside string and if word founds then program will reverse that word. Similarly it'll Reverse out all the Words.

Program code to read elements in an array and sort elements of the array in ascending order. Read unsorted integer values in array and sort them in ascending order. Numerous